Understanding the Jominy end quench test

The Jominy end quench test (ASTM A255 ) is an extremely simple and useful test that is applicable to many materials besides steel...

Thermal triplets: PM, sintering, and case hardening

From my experience, powder metals (PM), sintering, and case hardening are three processes that could be said to be joined at the hip. More...

Heat treating is not for the faint of heart

Why heat-treating furnaces look the way they do, Part 2

Hardenability – the influence of tramp elements

Hardenability is the property of a material to deeply harden, and not the ability to get hard . This basic concept has driven much...

Developing a superalloy with superior heat resistance

Demand for superior machinery that can operate effectively under extreme conditions is driving the development of newer alloys. One significant example is the preparation...

Furnace Doors

No matter the configuration, single or multi-chamber vacuum, batch integral quench, continuous, or even pits — an item that all furnaces have in common...

Let’s hear it for welding

Heat-treating and metallurgy are topics that attract the overwhelming interest of attendees of technical conferences and are written about in numerous articles. However, a...

Carbon: Essential element or too much of a good thing

52100: Simple, yet it embraces carbon’s two-way benefit to steel

Anatomy of a Heat-Treating System

Ninety-eight 600-pound trays are in continuous process, 13 are in the pre-process queue, nine preheating, 14 in the boost carb, eight in the diffusion...

Intensive Quenching Calls For Very High Cooling Rates Part 2

Intensive quenching (IQ) is defined as cooling, usually using pure water, at a rate several times higher than the rate of conventional quenching. Fast,...

Determining Grossman H-value from cooling curve data

In the last article, I described how the Jominy end quench test could be used to predict hardness for a series of different round...

Furnace Types

Heat treating furnaces consist of several subassemblies: insulation (fiber and brick), heating systems (electric and gas), material handling, quenching, atmosphere system, process and control...

Intensive Quenching

Heat treating is similar to art in many ways, but not for the reasons you might think. Art, it’s said, is in the eye...

Carburizing today: The secrets to predicting success

Predicting the outcome for today’s various carburizing processes requires different procedures and processes. Carburizing today is performed by two primary processes, at or above atmospheric...

Find the right equipment

Vacuum carburizing or LPC, neutral hardening, oil or HPGQ (high pressure gas quench), vacuum pumps, graphite insulation, radiation shields or ceramic insulation, graphite or...

Stainless Steels

Kitchen sinks, refrigerator or oven doors, and tableware are what many people think of when they are asked what’s made from stainless steel (SS)....

How did we get where we are today?

Having worked in the heat-treating industry for 58 years, I agreed in January 2011 to write a monthly column about all things heat-treating for...

Carburizing and Steel

In carburizing, gears must be heated to reach the appropriate temperature for the steel grade without causing excessive grain growth and distortion in a...

Heating with natural gas

It’s no secret that the heat treating industry is one of the major recipients of the impact when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)...

Heat Treating, Furnaces, and Unintended Consequences

A few decades ago, my involvement with depleted uranium (DU) began in the metallurgical R&D department, developing program logic to heat treat DU in...

The big gamble: Electric vehicles or bust

There’s a big gamble going on in Detroit, and I don’t mean at Greektown Casino; it’s at the big three automakers. All have, in...

Some things old can be new again

Why heat-treating furnaces look the way they do

Furnace Maintenance

When a heat treat manager or anyone responsible for purchasing heat treating equipment makes a buy decision, they must first consider the process required,...

Allocating space for case hardening furnaces

When selecting neutral or case hardening furnaces that require pits and have vertically mounted radiant tubes, facility managers must make sure that the equipment...

Lighter Weight and Increased Fatigue Strength with Adi

Have you ever hit a rock or other hard projectile while cutting your lawn? Have you noticed that the blade is dented, not broken...

The metallurgical R&D laboratory

Remembering old-school lab work is a blast from the past

Future of heat treating of gears is similar to garage sale mentality

When and how does a heat treater determine whether to purchase new equipment or rebuild an old furnace? Several years ago I participated in a...

Meeting Automotive Efficiency Standards

For automobiles where competing hardening processes and materials are involved, automotive designers and heat treaters have choices when deciding how to meet efficiency standards. There...

Process control is vital to heat-treating

The definition of process control can only be defined by the experience of the per-son to whom the query is presented. Everyone involved in...

Predicting hardness by the Grossman H-Value

In the last article, we described a method of calculating the Grossman H-Value . In the article before last, we described a method of...

Troubleshooting induction hardening problems: Part 1

Induction hardening is a unique method used to harden steels. The process uses a power supply, RF generator, induction coil, and quenching mechanism (spray...

Troubleshooting induction hardening problems: Part 2

Last month, I began a two-part article about troubleshooting induction hardening problems and discussed possible corrections. This month, I will discuss biological and odor...

Troubleshooting induction hardening problems – Part III

In previous columns, I have provided some detail on the sources of problems with induction hardening.  While I have tried to be inclusive, there...
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