May 2021

Using the correct thermocouple

The principles behind how and why a thermocouple functions were beginning to be understood in the early 1800s with most significant developments taking place in Europe. In 1800, Alessandro Volta built a voltaic pile of dissimilar metals, silver and zinc, separated by cloth that had been soaked in salt water. This stack created a small […]
John Niggle

Preventing eutectic reactions and diffusion bonding in vacuum processing

The purpose of this article is to explain reactions that can occur during a vacuum processing cycle and different methods of preventing these reactions. We will discuss how eutectic compositions can form while heat treating and how diffusion bonding can be a concern to heat treaters when two dissimilar materials are in close contact with […]
Real J. Fradette, Roger A. Jones

Effect of heat-treatment conditions on the mechanical properties and machinability of Ti15SnxCu alloys

In the current work, the microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of Ti15SnxCu alloys (x = 0 to 2 wt. %) were investigated. The alloy was prepared by the vacuum arc, re-melting and casting route, and then thermally processed by solutionizing at 1,000°C for two hours, followed by water quenching. By controlling the heat-treated condition and […]
Lung-Chuan Tsao

April 2021

The advantages of pulse plasma nitriding

In the gear manufacturing industry, when case-hardening, tempering, or nitriding the surface of steel, whether for gears or gearboxes, the options have traditionally included one of three processes: carburizing, salt-bath nitrocarburizing, or gas nitriding. Each process has advantages and disadvantages. However, those seeking more precise control of the diffusion layer formation, depth of case hardening, […]
Jeff Elliott

Oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites enabling widespread industry adoption

Oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites are gaining increasing attention as a mainstream material option for high-temperature components in the aerospace and advanced energy sectors. As the material moves from bench to production, cost reductions are required to ensure the solutions are market-competitive with titanium and other high temperature alloys. In parallel, a more comprehensive portfolio of […]
John Lincoln, Barrett Jackson, Amy Barnes, Aaron Beaber, Larry Visser

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 2

Editor’s note » This is the second of a five-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Part 1 was published in February. It is my hope that suppliers may have, at the very least, gained some insight into some challenges they may face […]
Jason Schulze

March 2021

Optimizing process operations

In integrated control system is the most effective way to enhance any complex industrial manufacturing process. A well-designed control system not only ensures greater safety and hazard prevention, but it also allows for precise monitoring for strict operating parameters. While recommended for all industrial process equipment, for some applications, such as metal coil coating, a […]
Tasha Jamaluddin

A posteriori reconstruction of the temperature distribution in surface hardened tempering steel

Process control in surface hardening depends greatly on the repeatability of the results. Induction heating facilities stand out in this aspect but challenges arise when it comes to the verification of the expected temperatures. In-situ temperature measurement of a workpiece may be made impossible due to it moving through an enclosed, automated induction facility that […]
Daniel G. Mevec, Peter Raninger, Petri Prevedel, Vince Jászfi

Case Study: New temperature control system delivers precision, efficiency, and flexibility

Clifford-Jacobs is a nearly century-old producer of die forgings. When the company needed to improve its process controls on its heat-treating furnaces, it turned to Conrad Kacsik. Clifford-Jacobs serves a number of industries, including construction, mining, forestry, aerospace, energy, and rail. With process controls well over 10 years old, the company was eager to improve […]
Christopher S. Miller

February 2021

Combustion behavior and mechanism of Ti14 titanium alloy

The combustion behavior and mechanism of Ti14 titanium alloy are studied by promoted ignition combustion tests at different oxygen pressures. The burning velocity increases at higher oxygen pressures and also increases with longer burning times instead of a constant at the same pressure. The Cu atoms are found enriched in two zones — i.e., the […]
Lei Shao, Guoliang Xie, Hongying Li, Wanran Lu, Xiao Xiao, Jiabin Yu, Jinfeng Huang

Innovation for saving energy and improving output

The harsh economic climate of 2020 had a direct impact upon ferrous and non-ferrous metal producers, as well as those companies involved in the post production processes of these metals. The demand had fallen sharply in almost all markets worldwide. However, as we move forward into 2021, the signs are encouraging for both sectors as […]
Allan Davies

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 1

Editor’s note » This is the first of a six-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Throughout my consulting work, questions regarding Nadcap heat-treat checklists are often presented. These questions range from interpretation to job audits to applicability. In this series, I will […]
Jason Schulze

January 2021

Electrical heating in vacuum applications

Applying electrical heat to materials under vacuum can be an important manufacturing process to ensure product quality when drying, high-purity processing or other vacuum heating is required. The use of vacuum promotes off-gassing and reduces the boiling point of trapped liquids. Unfortunately, vacuum alone may cause liquid evacuating from the material or part to freeze. […]
Edye Buchanan

Can sub-zero treatment at minus-75°C bring any benefits to tool manufacturing?

Vanadis 6 ledeburitic tool steel was subjected to sub-zero treatment at minus-75°C for different durations and for different subsequent tempering regimes. The impact of these treatments on the microstructure, hardness variations, and toughness characteristics of the steel was investigated. The obtained results infer that the retained austenite amount was reduced to one fourth by sub-zero […]
Martin Kusy, Lydia Rizekova-Trnkova, Jozef Krajcovic, Peter Jurci, Ivo Dlouhy

Stronger ‘shaped’ wire belt stands up to rigors of heat treating

Whether for automotive, aerospace, or heavy equipment, manufacturers using heat treatment — which can reach temperatures up to 2,400°F and vary from a few seconds to 60-plus hours — need conveyor belting that can withstand the rigors of the process. However, traditional round balance weave wire belting has changed little in 100 years and often […]
Del Williams