Saturday, February 27, 2021


December 2020

COVID-19’s effect on PRI / Nadcap

At this point in 2020, we have all felt the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic both personally and professionally. As of the writing of this article, there have been nearly 10 million cases with more than 220,000 deaths in the U.S. alone [1], and, according to the CDC, cases in the U.S. are rising. For […]
Jason Schulze

Performance and Properties of a new Alternative Gear Steel

In the ongoing strive for light weighting or power densification, high-performance clean steels are showing a significant improvement. As a next step, gear steels that combine several properties, are now proving an interesting alternative. Traditional gear steels achieve their maximum hardness after carburizing and a fast quench. A fast quench usually results in distortion as […]
Lily Kamjou, Joakim Fagerlund

Maintaining uniform target temperature

There are various processes where temperatures and other operating parameters in the oven must be controlled accurately in real-time with minimal delays. Taking a metal curing process as a viable example, we must acknowledge that the production of adhesives or various polymers materials and their bonding to the metal surface is a highly temperature-sensitive process. […]
Tasha Jamaluddin

November 2020

Rex Heat Treat

Rex Heat Treat has been involved in projects that have plumbed the depths of the Gulf and explored the landscapes of Mars, and yet, the company is still considered one of the best-kept secrets of the heat-treating industry. However, a quick look at what Rex Heat Treat offers reveals the wide range of the company’s […]
Kenneth Carter

October 2020

Case study: Insights on a Nadcap accreditation

How did you first hear about Nadcap, and why did your company decide to pursue Nadcap accreditation in the first place? Braddock Metallurgical was partnered with many aerospace suppliers. As Nadcap accreditation became more widespread, we were approached by our customers in 2004 to participate in the program and attain a Nadcap heat-treat accreditation. Braddock […]
Thermal Processing staff

Ceramic fiber module lining installation on a curved vessel wall

Ceramic fiber modules have been implemented in thermal oxidizer units (TOU) and vessels for more than 50 years, and they have become ubiquitous as the only choice for insulation in TOUs. A thermal oxidizer unit is a degasser unit that destroys volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through thermal combustion. The precise reaction yields the biproducts of […]
Philip Kent

Bringing forging equipment online to meet expanding production requirements

When forging operations need to expand production to meet increased demand for existing parts or to add new product lines, selecting from the available options to bring new equipment online can be challenging. Ultimately, the decision involves striking a delicate balance between fitting within budget constraints and accepting what can often be very long lead […]
Del Williams

September 2020

Advantages of wire-arc additive manufacturing

The concept of additive manufacturing has been around for a century, but with the advent of sophisticated software and robotics, the process is fast becoming a game changer in the manufacturing world. 3D printing — a term often used interchangeably with additive manufacturing — has been used successfully to manufacture small components, but when it […]
Kenneth Carter

Does nitriding improve the corrosion and wear properties of additive manufactured stainless steel?

Many industrial processes require a stable heat source to generate end-products. Heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are commonly used in such processes as heat carriers and a number of options are available to producers, such as steam and mineral-based fluids like Globaltherm M. Historically, steam had been used as a HTF in the 1900s as the […]
Chris Wright

A study of temperature effect on properties of nitride layers on X37CrMoV51 tool steel used in the extrusion aluminum industry

The paper concerns the effect of annealing time and temperature on the properties of the nitride layer on X37CrMoV51 tool steel used in the extrusion aluminum industry. Samples made from X37CrMoV51 steel were hardened and tempered, and then nitrided at 530°C. After nitriding, the samples were annealed in a furnace at 470°C for 8 hours, […]
Rafal Hubicki, Maria Richert, Marcel Wiewióra

August 2020

The cutting edge of thermal processing in a forge environment

Scot Forge is a 128-year-old, 100-percent employee-owned forging company that works in multiple markets from large defense, aerospace, power generation and mining projects to small machine shop and single bar orders. Over the years, our owners have made substantial investments in thermal processing equipment with nine custom-designed quenchant systems that work in tandem with more […]
Joe Weaver

A review of lubricant removal systems and the latest technology

Whether a component is produced through binder-jet additive manufacturing, metal injection molding, or conventional press and sintering, lubricant removal continues to be one of the most common issues in sintering. As with all technologies, new forming techniques have resulted in the development of new lubricants. The result is the need for even more understanding and […]
Stephen Feldbauer

July 2020

Case study: Determining the cause of cracking using computer modeling

During an induction-hardening process, the part surface is heated using a medium- to high-frequency inductor. Once the desired depth of austenitization is reached, the part surface is quenched to transform the austenite to martensite. Compared to traditional furnace heating and liquid quenching, the induction process is much more energy efficient due to the rapid heating […]
Justin Sims, Zhichao (Charlie) Li

4D high-pressure gas quenching

Thermal processing and quenching of steels for hardening is a well-established practice performed by various techniques over the centuries. A common thread has been the unpredictable nature of the size change during the quenching process, which is known as dimensional change or distortion. Material distortion is the undesired trade-off between the development of proper mechanical […]
Tom Hart, Maciej Korecki

Heat Treatments and Critical Quenching Rates in Additively Manufactured Al–Si–Mg Alloys

Laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) has significantly gained in importance and has become one of the major fabrication techniques within metal additive manufacturing. The fast cooling rates achieved in LPBF due to a relatively small melt pool on a much larger component or substrate, acting as heat sink, result in fine-grained microstructures and high oversaturation of […]
Leonhard Hitzler, Stephan Hafenstein, Ewald Werner, Francisca Mendez Martin, Helmut Clemensare, Enes Sert, Andreas Ochsner, Markus Merkel

June 2020

Commercial sintering of chromium powder metallurgy (PM) steels

Chromium was introduced as a potential alloying element for powder metallurgy (PM) steels in the 1990s. Since then, numerous chromium-containing alloy systems have been introduced and standardized in the North American market. While applications have been successful in using the benefits of these materials, the overall growth has been limited due to perceived concerns relating […]
Roland T. Warzel III, Amber Tims, Bo Hu

Laser sintering of thermoset polyimide composites

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that builds 3D models layer-by-layer using a laser to selectively melt cross sections in powdered polymeric materials, following sequential slices of the CAD model. SLS generally uses thermoplastic polymeric powders, such as polyimides (i.e. nylon), and the resultant 3D objects are often weaker in their strength […]
Kathy C. Chuang, Timothy J. Gornet, Kate Schneidau, Hilmar Koerner

May 2020

Going viral: Outside-the-box research into sterilizing N95 masks for re-use

With the COVID-19 pandemic still raging across the country and the world, the need for personal protective equipment for medical professionals has pushed the production and distribution of this literal life-saving necessity to their limits. Given the ongoing challenge of demand exceeding production, Thermal Product Solutions (TPS) has been working with health professionals to use […]
Kenneth Carter

Temperature sensor selection: The basics of temperature measurement using thermocouples

You are probably somewhat familiar with the thermocouple, or you wouldn’t be reading this article. But there are important points about thermocouples that must be understood and that will help you to make an informed selection between sensor types and avoid potential problems in your application. First, we need to clear up a common misconception […]
Bruce Cyburt

April 2020

Heat work to the fore

Sporting its new tagline — Enabling a Clean, Efficient & Electrified Future — the highly regarded Ceramics Expo will once again head for Cleveland’s I-X Center (September 22–23) for its sixth annual technology showcase. The organizer, Smarter Shows (Tarsus) Ltd., has confirmed that this is a virtually sold-out event, and it’s now expected that more […]
Charlie Wallin

Spectroscopic study of plasma nitrocarburizing processes with an industrial-scale carbon active screen

The active screen plasma nitrocarburizing technology is an improvement of conventional plasma nitrocarburizing by providing a homogeneous temperature distribution within the workload and reducing soot formation. In this study, an industrial-scale active screen (AS) made of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon serves as the cathode as well as the carbon source for the plasma-chemical processes taking place. The […]
A. Puth, L. Kusyn, A.V. Pipa, S. Hamann, J.H. van Helden, J. Röpcke, I. Burlacov, H. Biermann, A. Dalke

March 2020

Pyrometry – A Different Take

Any article on pyrometry, as it applies to AMS2750 and thermal processing, usually gets a lot of attention. Typically filled with interpretation, clarification, and general discussion, it is understandable that pyrometry can be difficult to interpret at times, especially for someone new to the topic. Using my own experience in the industry, I have written […]
Jason Schulze

Process control, monitoring, and quality assurance specifics for induction heating

Controlling the induction-hardening process is a demanding application compared to most other thermal processes. The first and foremost requirement is to precisely control the energy delivered to the part in a reliable and repeatable manner and to deliver that energy to a precise location within the part to assure that the heat-treat pattern is per […]
Timothy Kennamer

Temperature uniformity survey ( TUS ) general practice for CQI-9 and AMS2750E

In the automotive and aerospace manufacturing industry, CQI-9 and AMS2750 specifications are established as guidelines to: “address pyrometric requirements for thermal processing equipment used for heat treatment. The document covers temperature sensors, instrumentation, thermal processing equipment, system accuracy tests, and temperature uniformity surveys. These are necessary to ensure that parts or raw materials are heat […]
Steve Duban

February 2020

The Future of Kiln Lining

Lining iron and steel furnaces is critical to extend the life of the furnaces and to protect the purity of the metals being heat treated. Therefore, choosing the best material to meet these needs is critical. For many years, the primary material choice for the industry has been refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), which can withstand […]
Peter Ermtraud, Nicola Robinson

Embracing industry change

Most companies, regardless of the industry or business, want to see improvement. Whether it is improving customer satisfaction or quality or bottom-line profit or reputation in the community, the common denominator is the same. In order to achieve this common goal, something or perhaps many things have to change. However, as soon as the realization […]
Michael Rumfola

January 2020

Take Another Look at Deep Cryogenic Treatment

What is happening in the world of Deep Cryogenic Treatment (DCT)? Research into this field is exploding. Research is coming from companies and major universities in China, India, Hungary, Turkey, Pakistan, Poland, Iran, Italy, the United Arab Republic, Korea, and others. The research is covering many facets of DCT. There are three major research topics […]
Frederick Diekman

Vacuum heat treatment for additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing means any technology capable of obtaining a final component starting from a 3D CAD file and adding material layer by layer. At a theoretical level, additive manufacturing only coincides with the 3D-part construction phase. In reality, in order to fully understand this technology, a series of other preprinting and postprinting activities must be […]
Alessandro Fiorese