Wednesday, October 27, 2021


October 2021

Using FAST-forge to produce near net shape forgings from surplus AM powder

Titanium alloys are used extensively in the aerospace sector due to the good combination of high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosive resistance. Many aerospace components are exposed to extreme service stress states and temperatures, which in some applications could compromise the component’s performance if a single titanium alloy is used. A potential solution to this issue […]
Oliver Levano, Nicholas Weston, Jacob Pope, Martin Jackson, Adam Tudball, David Lunn, Gavin Baxter

The importance of preventative maintenance

For those of you who work in heat treat every day, this will be nothing new; however, it will be an attempt to assist you in getting what you need with the right information to help inform the front office that every maintenance dollar is well spent. With the awareness that far more technical and […]
Jennifer Bielen

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 5

Editor’s note » This is the final article of a five-part series that deconstructs the requirements of AC7102. Each article has appeared every other month through 2021. Part 1 was published in February; Part 2 appeared in April; Part 3 was featured in June; and Part 4 was part of the August issue. AC7102/8 relates to […]
Jason Schulze

September 2021

The next level of hot isostatic pressing

Over recent years, the development of in-HIP heat treatment (High Pressure Heat Treatment) has led to some interesting developments, which are now changing the heat-treatment industry. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), which is an essential process to remove defects and improve the mechanical properties of materials for critical components, has previously been followed by heat treatment […]
Jim Shipley

How to properly debind parts produced by metal AM

Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing technology that is gaining more and more ground among metallurgists. The process involves all the techniques used to create 3D-metal objects from a digital design. The production of three-dimensional solid objects using AM technology is different from traditional subtractive manufacturing, which uses a block of solid material from which excess […]
Andrea Gionda

August 2021

Titanium alloy microstructure fingerprint plots from in-process machining

Titanium alloy components require several machining stages of forged billets, which are supplied in a range of annealing conditions. Generally, the machining performance is influenced by the heat treatment and changes in billet microstructures are often overlooked by tool manufacturers and machinists. Due to the non-linear strain path during primary forging, titanium alloy billets are […]
D. Suarez Fernandez, B.P. Wynne, P. Crawforth, M. Jackson

Enabling a better custom ceramic fabrication

Ceramic structures filled with tiny macroscopic pores play an important role in industrial and biomedical products, but they’re also notoriously difficult to fabricate. A Cornell researcher may have an answer, as a manufacturing technique she’s developing has introduced a new level of precision to porous ceramic materials, opening a new realm of possibilities for their […]
Syl Kacapyr

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 4

Editor’s note » This is the fourth of a five-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Part 1 was published in February, Part 2 appeared in April, and Part 3 was featured in June. Hardness and conductivity testing are common tests used to […]
Jason Schulze

July 2021

The subtleties of induction processing

Inductoheat was recently asked to conduct three technical video seminars on modern induction thermal technologies for automotive industry: • The first seminar was April 28, 2021. Title: “Troubleshooting Failures and Prevention in Induction Hardening: General Useful Remedies, Impact of Geometrical Irregularities and Improper Designs.” Format: 90 minutes of oral presentation followed by 15-20 minutes of […]

Improving the mechanical properties of medium carbon steel

Quenching is one of the major processes of heat treatment of medium carbon steel that aims at improving its mechanical properties. However, the effectiveness of this process is dependent on several control factors that must be maximized to obtain optimum results in terms of hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength, among others. This study […]
O.O. Agboola, P.P. Ikubanni, A.A. Adeleke, A.A. Adediran, O.S. Adesina, S.J. Aliyu, T.S. Olabamiji

Carburizing clean with Method 4

The existing model for removing soot from a furnace is a burn-out consisting of three methods: Method 1: Remove the load, lower the furnace temp, open the door, and let air burn out the soot. Method 2: Remove the load and the atmosphere and add a small amount of air to the furnace for eight […]
George Barbour

June 2021

Focusing on advanced PM manufacturing methods

“Times and conditions change so rapidly that we must keep our aim constantly focused on the future.” — Walt Disney How appropriate. Over the years, the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) and APMI International sponsored conferences and exhibits have become the largest and most prestigious conferences in the powder metallurgy (PM) industry. This year, MPIF […]
James P. James P.

Microstructure and properties of tungsten-heavy alloy connections are formed during sintering with the participation of the liquid phase

Tungsten heavy alloys (THA) are used in the defense industry for subcaliber bullet cores due to their high density and strength. Typically, methods of joining tungsten-rod elements include: soldering, friction welding, or threaded-sleeve splicing. The properties of the joints were tested for three types of material containing 90.8, 96.2, and 98.2 wt.% tungsten, density from […]
Pawel Skoczylas, Zbigniew Gulbinowicz, Olgierd Goroch

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 3

Editor’s note » This is the third of a five-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Part 1 was published in February. Part 2 appeared in April. Aluminum heat treating is unique. Heat treatable aluminum alloys are those that contain magnesium, which provides […]
Jason Schulze

May 2021

Using the correct thermocouple

The principles behind how and why a thermocouple functions were beginning to be understood in the early 1800s with most significant developments taking place in Europe. In 1800, Alessandro Volta built a voltaic pile of dissimilar metals, silver and zinc, separated by cloth that had been soaked in salt water. This stack created a small […]
John Niggle

Preventing eutectic reactions and diffusion bonding in vacuum processing

The purpose of this article is to explain reactions that can occur during a vacuum processing cycle and different methods of preventing these reactions. We will discuss how eutectic compositions can form while heat treating and how diffusion bonding can be a concern to heat treaters when two dissimilar materials are in close contact with […]
Real J. Fradette, Roger A. Jones

Effect of heat-treatment conditions on the mechanical properties and machinability of Ti15SnxCu alloys

In the current work, the microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of Ti15SnxCu alloys (x = 0 to 2 wt. %) were investigated. The alloy was prepared by the vacuum arc, re-melting and casting route, and then thermally processed by solutionizing at 1,000°C for two hours, followed by water quenching. By controlling the heat-treated condition and […]
Lung-Chuan Tsao

April 2021

The advantages of pulse plasma nitriding

In the gear manufacturing industry, when case-hardening, tempering, or nitriding the surface of steel, whether for gears or gearboxes, the options have traditionally included one of three processes: carburizing, salt-bath nitrocarburizing, or gas nitriding. Each process has advantages and disadvantages. However, those seeking more precise control of the diffusion layer formation, depth of case hardening, […]
Jeff Elliott

Oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites enabling widespread industry adoption

Oxide-oxide ceramic matrix composites are gaining increasing attention as a mainstream material option for high-temperature components in the aerospace and advanced energy sectors. As the material moves from bench to production, cost reductions are required to ensure the solutions are market-competitive with titanium and other high temperature alloys. In parallel, a more comprehensive portfolio of […]
John Lincoln, Barrett Jackson, Amy Barnes, Aaron Beaber, Larry Visser

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 2

Editor’s note » This is the second of a five-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Click here for Part 1. It is my hope that suppliers may have, at the very least, gained some insight into some challenges they may face when […]
Jason Schulze

March 2021

Optimizing process operations

In integrated control system is the most effective way to enhance any complex industrial manufacturing process. A well-designed control system not only ensures greater safety and hazard prevention, but it also allows for precise monitoring for strict operating parameters. While recommended for all industrial process equipment, for some applications, such as metal coil coating, a […]
Tasha Jamaluddin

A posteriori reconstruction of the temperature distribution in surface hardened tempering steel

Process control in surface hardening depends greatly on the repeatability of the results. Induction heating facilities stand out in this aspect but challenges arise when it comes to the verification of the expected temperatures. In-situ temperature measurement of a workpiece may be made impossible due to it moving through an enclosed, automated induction facility that […]
Daniel G. Mevec, Peter Raninger, Petri Prevedel, Vince Jászfi

Case Study: New temperature control system delivers precision, efficiency, and flexibility

Clifford-Jacobs is a nearly century-old producer of die forgings. When the company needed to improve its process controls on its heat-treating furnaces, it turned to Conrad Kacsik. Clifford-Jacobs serves a number of industries, including construction, mining, forestry, aerospace, energy, and rail. With process controls well over 10 years old, the company was eager to improve […]
Christopher S. Miller

February 2021

Combustion behavior and mechanism of Ti14 titanium alloy

The combustion behavior and mechanism of Ti14 titanium alloy are studied by promoted ignition combustion tests at different oxygen pressures. The burning velocity increases at higher oxygen pressures and also increases with longer burning times instead of a constant at the same pressure. The Cu atoms are found enriched in two zones — i.e., the […]
Lei Shao, Guoliang Xie, Hongying Li, Wanran Lu, Xiao Xiao, Jiabin Yu, Jinfeng Huang

Innovation for saving energy and improving output

The harsh economic climate of 2020 had a direct impact upon ferrous and non-ferrous metal producers, as well as those companies involved in the post production processes of these metals. The demand had fallen sharply in almost all markets worldwide. However, as we move forward into 2021, the signs are encouraging for both sectors as […]
Allan Davies

AC7102 Checklist Review, Part 1

Editor’s note » This is the first of a six-part series of articles that will deconstruct the requirements of AC7102. Each article will appear every other month through 2021. Throughout my consulting work, questions regarding Nadcap heat-treat checklists are often presented. These questions range from interpretation to job audits to applicability. In this series, I will […]
Jason Schulze

January 2021

Electrical heating in vacuum applications

Applying electrical heat to materials under vacuum can be an important manufacturing process to ensure product quality when drying, high-purity processing or other vacuum heating is required. The use of vacuum promotes off-gassing and reduces the boiling point of trapped liquids. Unfortunately, vacuum alone may cause liquid evacuating from the material or part to freeze. […]
Edye Buchanan

Can sub-zero treatment at minus-75°C bring any benefits to tool manufacturing?

Vanadis 6 ledeburitic tool steel was subjected to sub-zero treatment at minus-75°C for different durations and for different subsequent tempering regimes. The impact of these treatments on the microstructure, hardness variations, and toughness characteristics of the steel was investigated. The obtained results infer that the retained austenite amount was reduced to one fourth by sub-zero […]
Martin Kusy, Lydia Rizekova-Trnkova, Jozef Krajcovic, Peter Jurci, Ivo Dlouhy

Stronger ‘shaped’ wire belt stands up to rigors of heat treating

Whether for automotive, aerospace, or heavy equipment, manufacturers using heat treatment — which can reach temperatures up to 2,400°F and vary from a few seconds to 60-plus hours — need conveyor belting that can withstand the rigors of the process. However, traditional round balance weave wire belting has changed little in 100 years and often […]
Del Williams