Thursday, July 18, 2024


July 2024

The future of vacuum oil quenching

Despite decades of relentless innovation, the constraints of high-pressure gas quenching have become increasingly evident. Even with the utilization of specialized inert gas blends and heightened gas pressures, the gas cooling efficacy compared to liquid quenchant cooling particularly for heavier cross sections has its limitations. It is also undeniable that certain aerospace alloy steels governed […]
Robert Hill

Nitrogen gas quenching pressure effect on BS S155 alloy steel in a vacuum furnace

The production of metal and alloy products requires the use of heat treatment. During the heat-treatment process, quenching is a crucial step. The quenching medium can be anything from water, a salt bath, oil, air, or gas. In a vacuum furnace, pressurized gas, most frequently nitrogen (N2) gas, serves as one of the quenching media. […]
Agus Mulyadi Hasanudin, Eddy Sumarno Siradj

Carburizing steel mechanical properties

This article is a follow-up to the three articles on “Mechanical Properties of Carburized Steel” in the March  [1], April [2], and May [3] 2023, issues of Thermal Processing. In the March article, it was shown the carburized case by itself is not as strong as predicted by the hardness, and that it fractures with […]
Gregory Fett

June 2024

The effect of heat treatment on a 3D-printed PLA polymer’s mechanical properties

Three-dimensional printing is a useful and common process in additive manufacturing. The advantage of additive polymer technology is its rapidity and design freedom. Polymer materials’ mechanical properties depend on the process parameters and the chemical composition of the polymer used. Mechanical properties are very important in product applicability. The mechanical properties of polymers can be […]
Mariam Shbanah, Márton Jordanov, Zoltán Nyikes, László Tóth, Tünde Anna Kovács

Effects of the sintering process on Al2O3 composite ceramics

The sintering process can improve the microstructure of Al2O3 composite ceramics and enhance their comprehensive properties, but the effects of the sintering process on Al2O3 composite ceramics are still unclear. Herein, a novel Al2O3 composite ceramic was printed using the material extrusion and photo-polymerization combined process, and the final ceramic was obtained using one-step sintering […]
Xin He, Jie Xu, Lijie He, Weixi Ji

May 2024

Optimal fabrication of a thin-film thermocouple using Alumel/Chromel junctions

Thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) technology is a novel measurement method that produces a thermocouple sensor during the deposition process, even though it is a complex surface, to obtain the surface temperature. TFTC is a thin film sensor for measuring temperature by contact methods, consisting of two different metals that can generate thermoelectric forces named “Seebeck effects.” […]
Dong Min Kim, Hee Jung Kwak, Jin Ho Park, Jun Young Kim, Dong Yeol Shin

Reducing time and cost of heat treatment post-processing of AM Ti6Al4V

The unique microstructure of Ti6Al4V produced through laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) displays high-tensile strength with low elongation in the as-built state. To obtain desired material properties that comply with standards for Ti6Al4V products, further post-processing is needed. Conventional practice prescribes that the required tensile properties can be achieved with time-consuming post-processing heat treatment of […]
Dean Kouprianoff, Willie du Preez

April 2024

Ceramic fiber: High temperature insulation solution

Ceramic fiber is essential in various industries involving high-temperature operations. It offers superior thermal resistance for protecting structures, equipment, and machinery from steel and glass production to airplane and space vehicle manufacture. What is high temperature ceramic fiber? Ceramic fibers are synthetic materials comprised of small filaments made from high-purity aluminosilicate minerals. Thanks to their […]
Christian Tavira, Mauricio Díaz

Nitrogen gas quenching pressure effect on BS S155 alloy steel in vacuum furnace

The production of metal and alloy products requires the use of heat treatment. During the heat-treatment process, quenching is a crucial step. The quenching medium can be anything from water, a salt bath, oil, air and gas. In a vacuum furnace, pressurized gas, most frequently nitrogen (N2) gas, serves as one of the quenching mediums. […]
Agus Mulyadi Hasanudin, Eddy Sumarno Siradj

The role of photo chemical etching in thermal management

The photochemical etching (PCE) process is distinguished by its capacity to fabricate metal parts with unparalleled accuracy. This process sidesteps the typical stresses and deformations linked to conventional metalworking, such as stamping or laser cutting, which can compromise material integrity. Such fidelity is crucial in the manufacture of components for thermal management systems, where material […]
Jochen Kern

March 2024

Demand for forged parts spurs drive to rebuild, automate equipment

Today, global demand for rebuilt forging equipment is surging, driven in part by a dramatic rise in the need for military ordnance spurred by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. As in past wars and conflicts, the demand for forged parts often increases as governments seek to replenish depleted stocks of artillery shells, tanks, aircraft parts, and […]
Del Williams

Experimental validation of high-spatial resolution of two-color optical fiber pyrometer

Taking non-contact temperature measurements in narrow areas or confined spaces of non-uniform surfaces requires high spatial resolution and independence of emissivity uncertainties that conventional cameras can hardly provide. Two-color optical fiber (OF) pyrometers based on standard single-mode (SMF) and multi-mode optical fibers (MMF) with a small core diameter and low numerical aperture in combination with […]
Sahar Safarloo, Alberto Tapetado, Carmen Vázquez

February 2024

Insulation paper: Exploring a versatile thermal solution

Insulation paper is a thin, flexible, high-temperature material used in industrial processing applications where heat management is critical. It provides thermal protection up to 3,000°F (1,600°C) and is easily adaptable to complex equipment geometries. With versatility, durability, and excellent thermal performance, insulation paper becomes an ideal insulation solution for furnaces, boilers, heat exchangers, automotive parts, […]
Sharon Dunn

Experimental research of a small-scale industrial furnace with regenerative disc-flame burners

Regenerative combustion technology has many advantages such as fuel saving, high combustion efficiency and low emission, and it has been widely used for large-scale furnaces. However, when regenerative combustion technology is adopted for small-scale furnaces, many technical problems occur. In this article, a small-scale regenerative furnace with a heat load of 70-80 kW and primary […]
Yitong Xie, Chaokui Qin, Zhiguang Chen, Shuangqian Guo

January 2024

Finite element modeling and simulation of vacuum brazing processes

Vacuum brazing is a black box process, so component distortion that occurs during heat treatment is difficult to prove experimentally. Thus, a novel FE-model was developed in ANSYS Workbench to calculate the time and location resolved component deformation of AISI 316L/B-Ni2 brazing assemblies. In this regard, a new method of radiation and contact modeling was […]
Wolfgang Tillmann, Tim Henning, Lukas Wojarski, Christian Timmer, Finn Ontrup

Case study: Improving cooling tunnel performance

The Mt. Holly, South Carolina, smelting facility of global producer Century Aluminum houses casting equipment to process nearly 230,000 metric tons of material into standard-grade ingot, HDC ingot, extrusion billet, and other products. As the first primary aluminum plant in the world to achieve the ISO 9001 Quality System Standard, Mt. Holly has the highest […]
Jackie Stokes

Reimagining the steel production process

Steel has a major impact on everyone’s lives and our economy. It is crucial to cars, trucks, airplanes, buildings, and more. However, there is a significant issue with its production process. Globally, it accounts for a large percentage of greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently announced $19 […]
Joseph E. Harmon