Gas carburization techniques

A comparison of conventional and accelerated methods for surface hardening

Induction hardening of cast irons

The success in induction hardening of cast irons and repeatability of obtained results are greatly affected by a potential variation of matrix carbon content.

Heat treatment of PM parts by hot isostatic pressing

Several advantages can be seen by using pre-stressed wire-wound hot isostatic presses for consolidating of metal powder.

Filler metal control in sinter brazing

The control of the filler metal at the braze joint of a sinter brazed product has significant impact on the quality and yield of complex shapes.

Customized, modern process control system saves time, money

When a manufacturer of fasteners and fastening system components needed a more reliable process control system, it turned to Conrad Kacsik for an upgrade that would work with its older hardware.

Benefits of graphite and C/C fixturing

More heat-treating engineers are making the switch to graphite fixturing using carbon composite materials.

Temperature and accuracy

Three basic steps that can help in selecting the right thermocouple wire.

Noise in instrumentation circuits

How to control and understand “noise,” as well as installation considerations.

Cryogenic process and application to ferrous alloy

Cryogenics or sub-zero treatment is the third parameter required to achieve maximum hardness in ferrous alloys.

Selecting Industrial Vacuum Pumps

An analytical guide to the down-select process.

Reliable Vacuum Supply for Plasma Nitriding

Plasma nitriding is becoming more and more important for heat treatment.

Aerospace Testing & Pyrometry

With its motto, “Profit from our knowledge because quality is our standard,” Aerospace Testing & Pyrometry keeps a laser focus on aerospace pyrometry compliance and a top priority on the customers it serves.

Case Study: Cost effective, low distortion carburizing of internal helical ring gear for transmissions

There are many critical factors that are assessed when designing a gear that will be used in demanding applications such as engines or transmissions....

Extending Performance

Metal gears and precision components of all types are in growing demand for robotics, particularly in industrial sectors such as automotive, aerospace, and machinery....

Single-piece flow case hardening can be worked into in-line manufacturing

Case hardening by carburizing is the most common heat treatment in mass production, which relies on atmosphere or vacuum carburizing followed by oil or...

Case Hardening Basics: Nitrocarburizing vs. Carbonitriding

Confusion surrounding the case-hardening techniques of nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding prove the point that it's easy to get lost in the nomenclature behind heat-treating processes. That...

Case Study: Conrad Kacsik and Modern Industries

Modern Industries, one of the largest heat-treating facilities in Pennsylvania, has seen its share of equipment come and go since its beginning 71 years...

Company Profile: Lindberg/MPH

Lindberg/MPH has been around for over 100 years. During that century, it has changed hands and names, but since it became part of Thermal...

Elemental Analysis of Metal Powders and Metal Parts Produced by Additive Manufacturing

An integral part of industrial product development is the manufacture of prototypes and initial samples, regardless of whether the product is a simple screw...

Hardening of Powder Metallurgy Parts 101

Powder metallurgy (PM) is unique in that one has the ability to create a process system (alloy, process steps, and secondary operations) specific to...

Vacuum Diffusion Pumps

Vacuum diffusion pumps come in a variety of sizes and are capable of producing high vacuum in a range from 10-2 to 10-10 torr....

Induction Heat Treating: How to Shorten the Time to Production

In an increasingly competitive world, it is good to pause and ask: How can we do our work faster, better, and use fewer resources?...

Ensuring Effective Furnace Lining Efficiency

Refractory engineers remain under constant pressure to increase the performance of furnaces, incinerators, and reactors to maximize energy efficiency. Although there are many materials...

Computerized Design of Straight Bevel Gears with Optimized Profiles for Forging, Molding, or 3D...

Straight-tooth bevel gears are the simplest type of bevel gears that can be used for power transmission between intersecting shafts. They are commonly referred...

Gas Nitriding of Titanium

Interest in solution gas nitriding and diffusion of nitrogen into the surface of titanium alloys as a means to inhibit adhesive wear (galling) while...

Infrared Temperature Measurement Theory and Application

An infrared thermometer measures temperature by detecting the infrared energy emitted by all materials at temperatures above absolute zero, (zero degrees Kelvin). The most...

Effects of the Composition of Ca-Rich Inclusions on Tool Wear Mechanisms During the Hard-Turning...

This study describes the influence of the steel characteristics of Ca-treated carburizing steel grades during hard part turning of synchronizing rings in gearbox production....

Buying a New Lab or Industrial Furnace

When the time comes to purchase a new lab or industrial furnace, there are several points that need to be considered before going out...

Efficient Gas Heating of Industrial Furnaces

There are various types of high-efficiency gas burners and radiant tubes currently on the market, and economic tools can be used to assess investments...

Case Study: Busch LLC and Vakuum-Harterei Petter GmbH

Vakuum-Härterei Petter GmbH (VHP) based in Quickborn, Germany, is a contract hardening facility that specializes in high-quality heat treatment under vacuum. The company has...

Understanding the Cooling Curve Test

When a hot component comes in contact with the liquid quenchant, there are normally three stages of quenching. There are exceptions to this, which...

Heat Treating Education

In a recent paper by Janusz Kowalewski of Ipsen at the 3rd International Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering in Automotive Applications held...

Hybrid Forging: Advances in Open Die and Closed Die Forging

Today’s high-strength material users are increasingly obliged by everyday economic and competitive realities to seek alternatives to their current manufacturing processes. The reality that...

Single-Piece, High-Volume, and Low-Distortion Case Hardening of Gears

Global output of the automotive industry reached 86 million vehicles in 2014. Each vehicle is fitted with a transmission gearbox (see Figure 1). Ninety...

Detrimental Effects of Sulfur on Transverse Impact Properties in Steel Forgings

Anyone who has supplied or processed forgings for the power generation, oil and gas, or shipbuilding industries, among others, is familiar with Charpy impact...

Carburizing and Nitriding Treatment Modeling

(Photo courtesy of Advanced Heat Treat Corp.) Carburizing and nitriding treatments have the same goal: increase hardness on the surface while keeping the core ductility....

Analysis of Heat Treat Growth on Carburized Ring Gear and Multivariate Regression Model Development

In gear manufacturing and machine assembly, dimensional stability of each component and conformance to print requirements are of critical importance. During processing, dimensional changes...

Coupling CFD and Oil Quench Hardening Analysis of a Gear Component

Today, powertrain development is driven in the direction of weight reduction by replacing heavier components with low-cost or higher strength alloys for industries such...

Residual Stress Distribution in an Induction Hardened Gear

A vast majority of steel gears are heat treated in order to obtain the desirable properties of a final product such as a high...

Case Study: Laser Hardening

To increase the hardness of a steel material, there are basically three required steps in the hardening process. Step one is to heat the...
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