studied metallurgy and material science at RWTH Aachen Technical University in Germany. Then he worked as a scientist for TU Freiberg Technical University in the department of Mechanical Engineering and for Cambridge University (U.K.) in the department of Materials Science and Metallurgy. In 1999, he completed his Ph.D. at TU Freiberg. Starting in 1999, he worked as a research engineer at ALD-Vacuum Technologies GmbH in Hanau, Germany. He was involved in the development of low pressure carburizing, plasma-carburizing, and high-pressure gas quenching. Since 2007, he has been the director of R&D for ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH.