Archives

Company Profile: Surface Combustion

For more than a century, Surface Combustion has shown a constant commitment to develop innovative technology, while nurturing long-standing relationships with heat treaters who...
Kenneth Carter

Case Study: Cost effective, low distortion...

Atmosphere carburizing of large outside diameter, thin wall internal helical ring gear.
Lonny Rickman

Extending Performance

Can sub-zero treatments give robotic gears a hand?
Akin Malas

Single-piece flow case hardening can be worked...

An operational system is introduced for a truly single-piece flow method of case hardening by low-pressure carburizing and high-pressure gas quench.
Maciej Korecki Ph.D. , Emilia Wolowiec-Korecka, Ph.D., D.Sc., Agnieszka...

Case Hardening Basics: Nitrocarburizing vs....

The terms sound alike and often cause confusion, but nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding are distinct heat-treating processes that have their advantages depending on the material...
Rob Simmons

Case Study: Conrad Kacsik and Modern Industries

Two companies partner together to complete a yearlong plant-wide upgrade of process controls for heat-treating equipment.
Molly J. Rogers

Company Profile: Lindberg/MPH

Despite being in business for more than a century, Lindberg/MPH has undergone a recent transformation to make sure it stays a leader in the heat-treating/non-ferrous melting...
Kenneth Carter

Company Profile: Ipsen

A broken-down pottery kiln, an engineering degree from Brown University, and an entrepreneurial spirit helped to successfully launch Ipsen as a global leader in the heat treatment...
Kenneth Carter

Hardening of Powder Metallurgy Parts 101

Definitions and hardening methods used with powder metallurgy are described to provide a basic understanding of the nuances associated with the process.
Richard H. Slattery

Vacuum Diffusion Pumps

With no moving parts, diffusion pumps become a durable and reliable tool for many industrial applications.
E.W. Whitney III

Induction Heat Treating: How to Shorten the Time...

Laboratory testing and validation at the inductor-manufacturer level can result in a fully characterized and proven inductor with process parameters and a metallurgical report.
Sandra J Midea, P.E.

Ensuring Effective Furnace Lining Efficiency

These five tips can help you maximize energy efficiency and minimize heat loss with effective insulation and furnace lining solutions.
Steve Chernack

Elemental Analysis of Metal Powders and Metal...

Because non-metallic elements influence the physical properties of metallic materials, quality control should include analysis of the raw material and the final product to measure...
Mike Lucka & Nico Masciantonio

Company Profile: Wisconsin Oven Corporation

By offering standard and custom-designed ovens to a wide spectrum of industries around the globe, Wisconsin Oven Corporation is a world-class supplier of thermal processing...
Kenneth Carter

Computerized Design of Straight Bevel Gears with...

The computerized generation of straight bevel gears with spherical involute profiles is developed and the advantages of its application investigated. Possible microgeometry...
Alfonso Fuentes-Aznar, Ignacio Gonzalez-Perez & Harish K. Pasapula

Gas Nitriding of Titanium

This preliminary study examines the effect of the partial pressure of nitrogen on case characteristics when gas nitriding titanium in a vacuum furnace.
Donald Jordan, FASM & Virginia Osterman

Infrared Temperature Measurement Theory and...

Infrared thermometers for non-contact temperature measurement are highly developed sensors that have widespread application in industrial processing and research. This paper...
John Merchant

Effects of the Composition of Ca-Rich Inclusions...

Comparing a Ca-treated carburizing steel grade to a standard steel grade, the role of non-metallic inclusions on the tool wear and PCBN cutting tool life in fine machining of...
Niclas Anmark & Thomas Bjork

Company Profile: Gasbarre Furnace Group

Gasbarre Furnace Group includes a powerful trio of furnace-building companies that includes Sinterite, C.I. Hayes, and J.L. Becker.

Case Study: Busch LLC and Vakuum-Harterei Petter...

Dry vacuum technology in heat treatment processes offers advantages for a contract hardening company.  

Understanding the Cooling Curve Test

In heat treating, the cooling curve test is often used as a tool to compare quenchants or as a method to ensure that the quenchant being used is suitable for continued use and...
D. Scott MacKenzie, Ph.D., FASM

Buying a New Lab or Industrial Furnace

Many considerations should be addressed when specifying a new electrical resistance heated furnace.
James Brocklehurst & Derrick Wilson

Efficient Gas Heating of Industrial Furnaces

Even though the price of natural gas is currently low, the investment in high-efficiency gas burners makes sense economically.
Steven R. Mickey

Company Profile: AFC-Holcroft

AFC-Holcroft celebrates 100 years as the U.S. market leader in the production of industrial furnace equipment for ferrous and nonferrous metals.
Molly J. Rogers

Heat Treating Education

For an industry that is key to the performance of many everyday products, creating more higher education programs in heat treating and metallurgy is essential.
D. Scott MacKenzie, Ph.D., FASM

Hybrid Forging: Advances in Open Die and Closed...

Using the advantages of open die forging combined with the near-net shape capability of closed die forging, the forging process can be tailored to optimize time and cost savings.
Ashley Lukowicz & Margaret Dort

Single-Piece, High-Volume, and Low-Distortion...

A new concept has been developed for a single-piece flow case hardening system that adjusts to the size and shape of a particular gear in order to minimize distortion and ensure...
Maciej Korecki, Ph.D., Emilia Wolowiec-Korecka, Ph.D., DSc. & Doug...

Detrimental Effects of Sulfur on Transverse...

Supplying heat-treated forgings with Charpy impact specifications requires special attention to sulfur content in each heat of steel, even if the levels are within material...
Chuck Hartwig

Carburizing and Nitriding Treatment Modeling

The finite element method can provide insights needed by engineers to calibrate thermal processes, whether it’s carburizing or nitriding, and maximize the benefits of the...
Nicolas Poulain

Company Profile: Houghton International

Celebrating 151 years, Houghton International is a global market leader in metalworking fluids, bringing innovative and sustainable solutions that increase productivity, reduce...
Molly J. Rogers

Improved Materials and Enhanced Fatigue...

The latest advancements in steel grades and in case hardening technology are of key importance to meet the demand for improved fatigue properties of gear components.  
Dr. Ing. Volker Heuer, Dr. Ing. Klaus Loeser & Dipl. Ing. Gunther...

Analysis of Heat Treat Growth on Carburized Ring...

A developed set of predictive models to anticipate ring gear dimensional changes that occur during carburizing and hardening may eliminate the need for heat treat test lots and...
Olga (Olly) Rowan & Thomas J. Yaniak

Coupling CFD and Oil Quench Hardening Analysis of...

The coupling of CFD and heat treatment analyses provides a more robust application of computer modeling to predict the latent heat release, distortion, and residual stresses...
B. Lynn Ferguson, Zhichao (Charlie) Li, David Greif, Zlatko Kovacic,...

Residual Stress Distribution in an Induction...

Results of a full-scale 3D simulation is utilized to evaluate the complete distribution of residual stress in an induction hardened aeronautic gear component.
Dr. Dmitry Ivanov, John Inge Asperheim & Leif Markegard

Case Study: Laser Hardening

The hardening of materials by laser is a specialized and fast-growing field, as it offers improved wear resistance, expansion of component life, and increased strength and fatigue...
Markus A. Ruetering

Company Profile: Specialty Steel Treating Inc.

Specialty Steel Treating Inc., a family business specializing in precision-controlled heat treating, provides its customers with exceptional service and is a leader in the...

Inductive Fixture Hardening and Tempering Process...

A new inductive hardening and tempering process combines the benefits of induction heating and hardening with the benefits of a press hardening process.

Nitrocarburizing Gears Using the ZeroFlow Method...

Reliable furnace equipment design and innovative ZeroFlow control offers heat treating with lower gas consumption and the lowest emissions in gas nitriding and ferritic...

Ion Nitriding of Ferrous and Titanium Alloys for...

The advantages of ion nitriding in many low-alloy steels and titanium alloy gears used in high-performance applications include resisting wear and fatigue.
Dr. Edward Rolinski , Tekin Damirgi & Mikel S. Woods

Advanced Robotics Combined with Eddy Current...

Advancements in robotics have paved the way for cost-effective, nondestructive eddy current inspection of nonsymmetrical, complex components that previously required multiple test...
Dan DeVries

Optimizing Case-Depth Uniformity in the Vacuum...

The acetylene vacuum carburizing (AvaC®) process helps to ensure consistent part quality and to improve the manufacturing costs in producing gears.
Aymeric Goldsteinas & Jan Massholder

Company Profile: INEX Inc.

Pairing an advanced Silicon-Silicon Carbide material with a unique, cost-effective manufacturing process they pioneered more than 25 years ago, one Holland, New York-based company...

Controlling Distortion in Heat Treatment Through...

Press quenching is a specialized quenching technique that can be used to minimize the distortion of complex geometrical components during heat treatment. However, the success of...
Art Reardon

Producing Quality Parts in an Atmosphere Furnace:...

Heat treatment plays a crucial role when adding value to the parts produced. When used properly, the carburizing and quenching processes can help achieve ideal results in...
Rene Alquicer & Aymeric Goldsteinas

A Time-Compressed Numerical Approach for Thermal...

Here, a numerical method is used to simulate a heating cycle of a powder material through the use of a solid continuum model. This time-compressed approach to thermal modeling can...
R Shivpuri & S Slock

Enhanced Properties of 17-7 PH Stainless Steel

Solar Atmospheres developed a unique process for heat treating 17-7 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel using vacuum furnace technology. This process enhances the tensile...
Don Jordan

Stress Generation in an Axle Shaft during...

Compressive residual stresses are developed in the surface of an axle shaft during induction hardening, which further enhance its high-cycle fatigue performance. This article...
Zhichao (Charlie) Li, Andrew Freborg, Robert Goldstein, John Jackowski,...

Company Profile: Metallurgical High Vacuum

Exceeding the customer's expectations is always the goal for this remanufacturer of vacuum process equipment.
Tim Byrd

Reducing Gear Size for Compact Transmission...

Reducing gear size can deliver the same torque load while creating better bending fatigue performance relative to the original gear.
B. Lynn Ferguson, Zhichao (Charlie) Li & Andrew Freborg

Mathematical Modelling of the Vacuum Carburizing...

The primary goal of simulation is to predict the course of the process and the final properties of the product.
Maciej Korecki, Ph.D., Eng. , Prof. Piotr Kula, Ph.D., D.Sc., Eng.,...

Case Study: SECO/Warwick and ABB Instrument...

SECO/Warwick commissioned a roller hearth furnace system to ABB, an instrument transformer facility in Pinetops, North Carolina. ABB is a leading supplier of voltage and current...
Jessica Warren, Mike Bricker , Eric Schreiber & Mike Schmidt

Some Basic Mathematical Elements On Steel Heat...

The basic elements of the mathematical modeling of steel heat treating, for the heating-cooling industrial procedure applied to a helical gear.
J. M. Díaz Moreno, C. García Vázquez, F. Ortegón Gallego, M. T....

Case Study: Company: Phoenix Contact/Customer:...

OEM furnace builder supports its equipment worldwide via remote access.
Larry Moore

Investigations on Tooth Root Bending Strength of...

Dr. Nick Bretl, Stefan Schurer, Dr. Thomas Tobie, Prof. Dr. Karsten ...

Company Profile: Park Thermal International

Park Thermal has been an innovator in the field of heat treatment since 1938. Today, its products and services are found all over the world.
Tim Byrd

Increased Productivity Combining C/C Fixturing...

Carbon/carbon composite materials offer unique technical advantages over other materials.
Daniel H. Herring, Bill Warwick & Mike Lifshits

Vacuum Carburizing Large Gears

Manufacturing large, high precision gears requires an investment of machine time, materials, and design.
Nels Plough

Heat Treat 101: A Primer

The manufacture of precision gearing depends, to a great extent, on heat treating as a core competency.
Daniel H. Herring & Frederick J. Otto

Tooth-by-Tooth Induction Hardening of Gears (and...

For induction hardening of gears, the devil is in the details.
Sandra J Midea, P.E. & David Lynch

Flame Hardening Gears

For gear manufacturers in particular, the ability to focus the heat and scan each tooth with the upmost precision every time is especially beneficial.
Bruce Curry

Heat Treatment of Large Components

There are three important surface hardening methods used to improve and expand the technical use of gear components. Design and material engineers must decide which hardening...
Gerhard Reese & William Andreski

Advantages of Induction Hardening with No Soft...

In contrast to conventional carburizing, induction hardening is performed only on the highly loaded surfaces where it is needed, such as bearing races and gear teeth.
Torston Schaefer & Dirk M. Schibisch

Company Profile: The Euclid Heat Treating Company

Continual investment in new equipment and technologies help The Euclid Heat Treating Company maintain its position as the most diversified commercial heat treating company in...
Tim Byrd

Inductive Spin Hardening of Gears: A Survey of...

Although induction hardening is being increasingly used within the gear industry, much misunderstanding remains about this amazing technology.
Dr. Hansjürg Stiele & Kristian Berggren

Properties of Cases Treated with High-Temperature...

The influence of nitrogen on restricting austenite grain growth during vacuum carburizing and on mechanical properties (fatigue strength, impact resistance) of layers that...

CASE STUDY: Company: Praxair Distribution, Inc....

Benefits of Chemical Acetylene Dissolved in DMF as Used in Vacuum Carburizing of Gears
Crystal Baus

Cures for Heat Treaters Headaches

A discussion of what causes furnace component failure and the commercially available improvements or substitutes.
Curt Colopy

Improving Production Safely with Integrated Heat...

Heat treaters are always looking for methods to improve productivity. Integrating equipment and processes that are safe and cost-effective result in improved production quality...
Peter Komrowski & Chris Marinucci

Simulation of Gas Quenching of Steel Parts

With the absence of a quenchant phase change, gas quenching can result in more uniform heat extraction. However, gas quenching is not without inherent problems.
Zhichao (Charlie) Li & Andrew Freborg

Company Profile: CEIA USA

CEIA USA has created a solid foundation of reliable solid-state generators featuring the highest quality standards and performances.
Tim Byrd

How Gears Fail

Material issues such as hardenability, grain size, and inclusions can result in various gear failures. This underscores the criticality of steel cleanliness as well as controlling...
Daniel H. Herring

Recent Inventions and Innovations in Induction...

Depending upon the gear size, required hardness pattern, and tooth geometry, gears are induction hardened by encircling the whole gear with a coil (so-called "spin hardening...
Valery Rudnev

Typical Heat Treatment Defects of Gears and...

In this paper, the commercial heat treatment software DANTE is used to investigate three examples of heat treatment defects. Improved processes are suggested with the help of...
B. Lynn Ferguson

Tighter Control Through Understanding What Your...

Furnaces may have multiple operating ranges, meaning they may need to have TUS's performed more frequently.
Steve Miller

Gas vs. Liquid Quenching: A Direct Comparison in...

High hardness occurs where high volume fractions of martensite develop always nearer the quenched site. Lower hardness indicates transformation to be incomplete.
Robert Hill

Deep Cryogenic Treatment

DCT is a very important process to the gear making industry. If done correctly, it can increase product durability and reduce tooling costs.
Frederick J. (Rick) Diekman

Heat Treat Process For Gears

Different heat treating processes – as well as the materials being treated – impart particular qualities in your gears. Allow Bodycote to provide a deeper...
Nicholas Bugliarello, Biji George, Don Giessel, Dan McCurdy, Ron ...

Company Profile: Solar Atmospheres

One of the largest heat treaters and heat treat equipment manufacturers in the country explains capabilities for gear manufacturing.

Austempering: An Old Process with New Potential...

ADI is a lower-cost alternative to through-hardened, gas-nitrided, induction-hardened, carburized and hardened steel gears, having comparable or improved performance.

How to Avoid Heat Treatment Problems When...

Communication and advanced quality planning are the keys to heat-treating gears successfully.

A Case for Acetylene Based Low Pressure...

A catalytically decomposable hydrocarbon with a high average carbon flux, Acetylene is a strong candidate for the preferred carbon gas choice.

New Simulation Software Tool Successfully Used in...

CarbTool is designed to assist heat treaters in understanding and modeling the effects of process parameters on case depth, carbon concentration, microstructure, stress and...

Contour Hardening Bevel, Hypoid, and Pinion Gears

TSH technology is an advanced induction hardening process that was specifically developed to reduce overall cost and to replace thermo-chemical heat treating processes.

Maintenance Procedures for Vacuum Furnaces

Using vacuum furnaces in gear manufacturing is a hot topic. This process offers advantages to gear manufacturers for gears that have critical surface differences and...

Variety of Furnaces Can Be Used for Heat...

Design engineers are able to choose from a number of heat treat processes and furnaces for different gear materials and designs. Selection of the appropriate furnace or material...
Daniel H. Herring

Rapid Stress Relief and Tempering

New equipment designs for stress relief and tempering processes can help you lower costs and achieve greater productivity.
Mario Grenier, Roger Gingras & G.E. Totten
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